Friday, January 24, 2020

Understanding Antisocial Behavior in Children Essay -- Violence Violen

Understanding Antisocial Behavior in Children In northeast Pennsylvania, 9 year old Cameron shot seven-year-old Jessica with a rifle and then hid it. The reason for the argument was a disagreement over a video game. In Englewood, a suburb of Chicago, a seven-year-old and his eight-year-old best friend became the two youngest murder suspects in the US when they were accused of the murder and sexual assault of an eleven-year-old boy. His body was discovered in a vacant lot. In Stockholm, Sweden, four-year-old Ken was strangled by two boys, ages five and seven, who pressed a stick to his throat, suffocating him after he was thrown on his back (Czudner, 1999, viii). Stories such as those depicted above are becoming increasingly common in today's society. Between the years of 1988 and 1992, juvenile arrests increased nearly 50% (Mayer, n.d. ). Where does this antisocial behavior stem from? How can a parent determine between routine misbehavior and the roots of antisocial behavior? What steps can a parent take to prevent antisocial behavior before it begins or curb it once it has begun? Possible answers to these questions will be addressed through the course of this paper. The role that parents play in contributing to antisocial behavior will be discussed, as well. Before any action or cause can be introduced, it is necessary to investigate how to determine whether a child is participating in routine misbehavior or is exhibiting antisocial behavior. According to Levine, there are a number of signs that should signal to a parent that his or her child has antisocial tendencies. Lack of genuine affection, lack of empathy, overall rebellious attitude, lack of guilt, mistreatment of animals or smaller chil... ...nces Asher, L. & Napier, M. (n.d.). Chicken wire mother. Retrieved November 1,2000, from the World Wide Web: http://www.birdhouse.org/spong/napier/cwm.html Czudner, G. (1999). Small Criminals Among Us. New Jersey: New Horizon Press. Dembo, M.H. (1994). In Applving Educational Psychology. (5th ed.). (pp.466-467). White Plains, NY: Longman. Dryfoos, J.G. (1999). The role of the school in children's out-of-school time. IM- Future ofChildren. 9, 117-132. Henslin, J.M. (1999). In Sociology: A Down to Earth ApQroach. (5th ed.). (pp 202- 204). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Levine,K.G. (1.991). When Good Kids Do Bad Things. New York: W.W.Norton& Company, Inc. Mayer, G.L. (n.d.) Prochnay, J.E. & Defronzo, J.V. (1997). The impact of economic and parental characteristics on juvenile misconduct. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 5, 119-127.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Ariel Dorfman’s Death and the Maiden 40 lines analysis Essay

The following forty lines from Ariel Dorfman’s Death and the Maiden (1990), take place in scene 1 of Act 3, after Roberto has been tied up by Paulina and threatened with being tortured the same way as she had been, and then shot. In response to Paulinaà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s threats, Roberto begins confessing the brutality of his actions and his motives. This confession may be true; however, Gerardo has advised Roberto to indulge Paulina, to confess as this would save his life. Whatever the case, the extract is important because it portrays how a man can slide into brutality, without initially meaning to. Second, the extract is important because it helps expose the iniquities of dictatorial military governments. Finally, it is also important because it gives us an idea of Roberto’s character and personality. In this extract we clearly see the stages by which a respectable doctor became a brutal sadistic torturer. Though Roberto’s brother told him that helping the torturers could be a way to â€Å"pay the communists back for what they did to [his] dad,† Roberto stresses that he accepted the job for â€Å"humanitarian reasons.† Firstly, he wanted to help the prisoners who â€Å"were dying† from the tortures as â€Å"someone to help care for them, someone they could trust.† Later on, however, Roberto became involved in more â€Å"delicate operations† and was asked to â€Å"sit in on sessions where [his] role was to determine if the prisoners could take that much torture.† This indicates that he was there while the prisoners were tortured, watching these brutal scenes. Roberto thought this † was a way of saving people’s lives,† as he â€Å"ordered them to stop or the prisoner would die;† however, watching brutalized him, and slowly the â€Å"virtue [he] was feeling turned into excitement.† Soon, â€Å"brutalization took over [his] life† and he began â€Å"to truly like what [he] was doing,† so much so that, from an observer, he became a participant. Torture became a â€Å"game† for him, a game that was â€Å"partly morbid, partly scientific,† as he tortured women to find out things like â€Å"How much can this woman take? More than the other one? How’s her sex? Does her sex dry up when you put the current through her? Can she have an orgasm under those circumstances?† By the end, Roberto had become a sadist totally obsessed with â€Å"carry[ing] out all [his] fantasies† of sexually torturing women who were â€Å"entirely in his power,† women with whom he could do â€Å"whatever [he] want[ed].† So, stage by stage, we see in the example of Roberto how men can slide from positions of respectability and motives of kindness and compassion to becoming human monsters, men who delight in the sufferings of others. The tragedy of Robertoà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s slide from being a humanitarian to being a torturer is emphasized by the style of his speech, which reveals that he is an intelligent, educated, insightful man. Firstly we see how Roberto’s diction indicates his intelligence and level of education. Words such as â€Å"brutalization† and â€Å"morbid,† and phrases such as â€Å"he lost his capacity for speech,† â€Å"humanitarian reasons† and â€Å"install a totalitarian dictatorship† clearly manifest his ability to speak articulately and in a high register. We also see how analytically capable Roberto is, as he does not just describe his own actions but explains why they occurred, carefully dissecting his his motives for working with the torturers, not to â€Å"pay the communists back† but â€Å"for humanitarian reasons.† He can organize his account in clear, logical stages, with phrases like â€Å"It was slowly, almost without realizing how,† â€Å"At first,† â€Å"But afterwards,† â€Å"By the time,† â€Å"I began to,† and â€Å"It became.† Additionally, even in the circumstances in which he is giving this confession, in fear of his life, Roberto uses figurative language, suggesting that he has good rhetorical abilities. He uses euphemism, for example, in calling torture sessions â€Å"delicate operations,† and he uses metaphors when he refers to his brutalization as â€Å"the mask of virtue fell off,† and to his descent into sadistic torture as â€Å"the swamp.† So, we see how Roberto’s use of language clearly reveals his high level of education and intelligence, and this makes us even more horrified at how such a sophisticated man could have become a brutal torturer of women. More than exposing the degeneration of individual men, exemplified in Roberto, however, this extract also exposes the iniquities of military dictatorships, like the Pinochet regime in Chile, which Dorfman himself had to flee from. We see how military governments divided families: though Roberto became a doctor devoted to saving lives, his brother, determined to â€Å"pay the communists back for what they did to [their] father,† took another path, joining the military dictatorship and becoming a â€Å"member of the secret services.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½Ã¢â‚¬  We also are given the impression of how military dictatorships can convince people to support them by manipulating their sufferings under previous governments, promising some kind of compensation, as Robertoà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s brother joined the dictatorship to â€Å"pay the communists back for what they didà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ to his father à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½the day the peasants took over his land at Las Toltecas.† Such governments also persuade people to support them, as Roberto did, by deceit and lies, getting Roberto involved in torture by saying the prisoners needed â€Å"someone they could help care for them,† but actually slowing criminalizing Roberto as a torturer. The fact that â€Å"they† have had such an enormous influence on Robertoà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s personality shows just how psychologically manipulative such regimes can be. Finally, the fact that, throughout his speech, Roberto refers to the government only as â€Å"they† evokes the way in which such governments work in the shadows, secretly and anonymously, to torture and terrorize. Thus this extract does not only show how Roberto and men like him deteriorate when they become involved in torture; it also shows how dictatorial regimes can manipulate such men, facilitating and enabling this deterioration to occur. In conclusion, this extract is very important as, whether Robertoà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s confession is true or feigned, it reveals how even the best of men may slide into such brutality and how military governments can create vile monsters out of exemplary human beings. Through the details of Robertoà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s confession, Dorfman is inviting his audience to consider how a man becomes sub-human. If a respectable doctor, a benefactor to the community, could turn into such a monster because of the effects of such a regime, then what would happen to the rest of society? Dorfman tries to make the reader consider that this incident that has turned Roberto’s life into a monster might happen to anybody in our society; especially in a switch of regime.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Social Issues in The House on Mango Street - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 529 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/06/24 Category Literature Essay Level High school Topics: The House on Mango Street Essay Did you like this example? In todayrs society there are many social problems that everyone tends to face. People are often treated as if they are inferior to others based on different things such as race, ethnicity, and even gender. In the story the House on Mango Street, the author, Sandra Cisneros addresses these issues. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Social Issues in The House on Mango Street" essay for you Create order Throughout the story, Cisneros thoroughly explains and displays how these conflicts effect the public. This story is written through the perspective of a young women, Esperanza, who is growing up in a low-class neighborhood. Cisneros indicates the problems with their society expectations including: there expectations of women and how they are treated, the discrimination that is based on their social classes, and the prejudices because of a personrs ethnicity/race. The House of Mango Streets views on society are based on a hierarchy. The story displays how women are looked upon as subordinates in a hierarchical society. In this book, Esperanza explains what women and young girls are subjected to, in the chapter What Sally Says Esperanza explains the assault that Sally goes through by her own father. Esperanza states, But Sally doesnt tell about that time he hit her with his hands just like a dog, she said, like if I was an animal. He thinks Im going to run away like his sisters who made the family ashamed. Just because Im a daughter, and then she doesnt say. In order to get away from this life and escape her fatherrs wrath Sally feels as if she needs to get married young and move on into another lifestyle. Esperanza explains her views on this by stating,Sally got married like we knew she would, young and not ready but just the same. She met a marshmallow salesman at a school bazaar, and she married him in another state where itrs legal to get m arried before eighth grade. She has her husband and her house now, her pillowcases and her plates. She says shers in love, but I think she did it to escape. The discrimination based on their social classes is shown in more ways than one. In The House on Mango Street people are treated according to their wealth evidently. Outsiders often look down upon Esperanza and her peers with no reason, except, that they live differently because of the fact that they have less money. In one part of the story Esperanza talks about how strangers percept their world, by saying, Those who dont know any better come into our neighborhood scared. They think that were dangerous. They think we will attack them with shiny knives. They are stupid people who are lost and get here by mistake. This comes to show how outsiders often have misconceptions about people who are different from them and are more so often too quick to judge. This suggestion is shown again when Esperanza is talking to a nun and the nun asks, Where do you live? And Esperanza points it out and then the nun goes to judge and says There? In a rude manner that belittles Esperanza and makes Esp eranza feel very embarrassed for being proud that her family is not renting but owns a house for once.

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Raven And The Overwhelming Power And Sadness Of The...

Critical Analysis This critical analysis essay is about Poet Edgar Allen Poe’s poem â€Å"The Raven† and the overwhelming power and sadness of the death of a loved one. There is such sorrow and even anticipation that the poem invokes in the reader. The poem can be quite dreary and full of gloom, but the author also makes it sound eerie but somehow beautiful and lyrical especially when reciting it orally. Poe was a remarkable writer and known as being a bit peculiar in person and in his writings. Poe uses the 18 stanzas of the poem to establish dark, morose and dreary feelings but then enhancing this by his using Christian symbolism of death and the hereafter. Edgar Allan Poe was born on the 19th day of January 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts.†¦show more content†¦During these years, he established himself as a worthy poet, writer, critic and editor. He worked tirelessly as an editor and reviewer and at the same time composed his poetry, essays, and fiction. In 1841, before anyone knew what a detective was, Poe wrote and had published the first detective story. As the father of detective genre, Poe is recognized and renowned for this reason. In 1842, Poe’s wife Virginia contracted tuberculosis, the same disease that had taken away Poe’s mother, foster mother and his brother. Poe’s poem, â€Å"The Raven,† published in January 1845 when he was 36 years old (Poe s Life Edgar Allen Poe Museum). This consequently brought him considerable recognition. When â€Å"The Raven† published, it made Poe a well-known household name and famous enough to draw crowds to his lectures. The poem contains eighteen stanzas, when Poe wrote â€Å"The Raven† his life had many stages. He had struggled to have his poems published, he had lived in poverty, suffered poor health, his beloved wife was gravely ill and he had lost many in his life that meant a lot to him. The poem gives the mood of doom, sadness, and melancholy. Poe shows in the poem the pessimism he feels about his own life, the lost loved ones, his wife’s illness. It is a reflection of his own history, past and present. He feels a foreboding every time he hears the raven speak and consistently repeats â€Å"Nevermore.† He uses his own moods and intensifying sadness because of lost loves. He feels

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay on Jimmy Hoffa - 2384 Words

Jimmy Hoffa was a very powerful leader and president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouseman, and Helpers of America, whose mysterious disappearance, suspected of being Mafia connected, on July 30, 1975 has never been solved. Hoffa was a major figure in the Supermob, the go-betweens of the upper world and the mafia world. As the Teamster president, Jimmy had two very important voters: his members and the gangsters that helped him move up the ladder to union success. Hoffa served his gangster associates by writing them into Teamster union power and Teamster union pension-fund cash. In his Supermob role, Hoffa did more to expand the affluence of the gangs and knit them into the fabric of American life†¦show more content†¦They informed him he would have to wait until 8:00 AM to have someone check it out. By 8:15 AM, Captain James Keller of the Bloomfield Township police department and Lt. Curt Grennier, head of the Departments Intelligence Section, were at the restaurant parking lot.3 The 74 Pontiac stood almost alone in the huge parking lot. It was unlocked and the keys were not in the ignition. Joe Bane was then contacted to find out if he had a set of keys to the car. He did not. He did, however call Hoffas son in Traverse City, Jimmy P. Jimmy P. told them to force the trunk open. The car was towed to the police-station garage, and the trunk was forced open. Nothing unusual was found in the trunk.4 The Bloomfield Township police quickly explained their action of opening the trunk. Theres no question that we took this action because of the bombing of the car owned by Dick Fitzsimmons, an officer of Teamster Local 299. We frankly had to find out if a body was in that trunk.5 While the police were opening up the trunk of Jimmys car, Jimmy P. was on a plane heading for the Oakland-Pontiac Airport. He arrived at 9:35 AM.6 4 By 11:00 AM, Jimmy Jr. was at the Bloomfield Police station telling Grennier that the family did not know why his father had not returned. Police said theyd do some more checking before having himShow MoreRelated Jimmy Hoffa Essay2308 Words   |  10 Pages Jimmy Hoffa was a very powerful leader and president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouseman, and Helpers of America, whose mysterious disappearance, suspected of being Mafia connected, on July 30, 1975 has never been solved. Hoffa was a major figure in the Supermob, the go-betweens of the upper world and the mafia world. As the Teamster president, Jimmy had two very important voters: his members and the gangsters that helped him move up the ladder to union successRead MoreJimmy Hoffa s Dead Body1203 Words   |  5 PagesAlthough a serious topic of the past, Jimmy Hoffa’s disappearance has become a light hearted joke that people share. Numerous articles have covered his case, both fo rmally and informally. Neal Matthews’s magazine article, â€Å"Desperately Seeking Jimmy,† which was published by Boating Magazine on November 1999, described Matthews’s search for Jimmy Hoffa’s dead body. The article illustrates the author’s experiences during the search for Hoffa’s body. Matthews uses personal experience and visualsRead MoreThe Rise and Fall of Jimmy Hoffa Essay3172 Words   |  13 Pagesand Fall of Jimmy Hoffa James Riddle Hoffa greatly changed the way America looked at unions and their members. Hoffa rose from the single parent teachings of his mom to an independent man who would fight for his people. Gaining experience from age seven in defending himself, and gaining leadership experience by leading a warehouse strike at age seventeen, Hoffa was destined to be a fighter. Losing was not in his genes and some may believe losing was not in his vocabulary. Hoffa would letRead MoreThe Assassination Of Jimmy Hoffa1207 Words   |  5 PagesDuring his career, He made more enemies. Hoffa was known to be one of the most powerful men in the country at the time and still. Of course because of his union leadership, many working Americans considered Hoffa as their hero. But it is believed that one of his enemies may have had something to do with his disappearance in 1975. During that year on July 30th. Hoffa left Detroit for a meeting with a local crime figure and a mob-connected union leader th at was from New Jersey. The met at a restaurantRead MoreJimmy Hoffa and Unionism2016 Words   |  9 PagesHoffa and Unionism As an organizer for the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), Jimmy Hoffa made significant progress toward improved working conditions for truckers and was fore mostly responsible for the rapid progression and development of the union. With over 1.5 million members during Hoffa’s tenure as president, IBT eventually became the largest single union in the United States (International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 2012). Through interpretive reactive analysis, topical courseRead MoreThe Transformation of Mob Menaltiy into Individuality Essay2100 Words   |  9 Pagesthe late 1960s after the Vietnam War. Jimmy Hoffa, the leader of the successful labor union the Teamsters, was a hero to the mistreated trucking employees by gaining the employees benefits and respect. However, his escalating success led to his own personal turmoil. As a result of Hoffa’s mob mentality and deathly relationships earned Hoffa an infamous reputation, which could have change into a positive reputation with some guidance. If Ralph Emerson were Jimmy Hoffa’s trusted advisor, Hoffa’s teamstersRead MoreThe Teamsters Union1899 Words   |  8 Pageschange of the AFL-CIO, wanting the intentions to promote union growth. Jimmy Hoffa became a labor leader in the 1930s, taking the Teamsters Union as far as he could until he became president. Hoffa was an important part of the first national freight-hauling agreement. He was sent to prison in 1967 for jury tampering, fraud and conspiracy. He later became the president of the union s Detroit group. Hoffa tried hard to make an expansion for the union s membership and argue better rulesRead MoreThe United States During the 1970 ´s 1227 Words   |  5 Pages1975, James â€Å"Jimmy† Hoffa disappeared without any evidence of what happen. Jimmy Hoffa was a former Teamster President and made the strongest labor union in the country. Hoffa had a luncheon at Machus Red Fox Restaurant in Bloomfield Township, Michigan. Hoffa was meeting the men to try and regain his President position as the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Jimmy Hoffa lost his powerful position after being convicted in 1964 of jury tampering, conspiracy, and fr aud. Hoffa was grantedRead MoreLegal Status of Unions1385 Words   |  6 Pagesand negotiated its merger with the AFL-CIO in 1955 (Featherstone, 2014), George Meany (1894-1980), led the AFL from 1952 until he negotiated the AFL-CIO merger with Reuther, which he then headed 1955-1979 (The Federal Labor College, 2012), and Jimmy Hoffa (1913-disappeared 1975), who headed the International Brotherhood of Teamsters 1958-1971 and was instrumental in the union’s growth and success, but he was also involved with organized crime which was believed to be responsible for his disappearanceRead MoreLiterature Review : History Of Warrantless Searches1252 Words   |  6 Pagesfederal agent into his home and that the statements were â€Å"willingly† made to the agent. Finally, in Hoffa v. United States, a government informant relayed to federal law enforcement agents the many conversations he had with Jimmy Hoffa about Hoffa’s attempt to tamper with a jury.56 Because the informant did not enter Hoffa’s hotel room by force, was invited to participate in the conversations by Hoffa, and was not a â€Å"surreptitious eavesdropper,† the Court concluded that the Fourth Amendment had not

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Journalism Is Art Free Essays

Journalism Is Art Journalism is defined as â€Å"writing that reflects superficial thought and research, a popular slant, and hurried composition conceived of as exemplifying topical newspaper or popular magazine writing as distinguished from scholar writing. † Art is defined as â€Å"the quality, production, expression, or realm, according to aesthetic principles, of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance. † So how are the two related? Journalism and art are related by definition because of two things. We will write a custom essay sample on Journalism Is Art or any similar topic only for you Order Now First, they are related because they both require superficial thought. Without creativity or a critical thinking process the article is not going to be different from anyone else’s. What separates the New York Times journalist from a college newspaper journalist? It is not just pay. It is pure experience and creativity. Any good writing requires creative thinking. Each piece of writing is individualized by the character and creativity of the writer Same with art. If everyone thought the same way then we wouldn’t have amazing paintings like the Mona Lisa by Leonardo Devinci or Starry Night by Vincent Van Gaugh that stands out from your local artist. Each artist has different styles of painting. An example would be modern art and scenery art. Each requires different strongholds in different areas of skill. Just like journalists, one writer may write amazing columns but when it comes to a hard news article they are not as strong. Secondly journalism and art is related by definition because they both have more than ordinary significance. Sylvia, who writes for the TAXI design network quotes, â€Å"When we are so deeply moved by an experience that we want to share it with others, we are where art begins. Art does not need to be â€Å"understood† or to be enjoyed. Like life itself, it can simply be experienced. Yet the more we understand what art can offer, the richer our experience of it will be. † This statement can be related to journalism. As a journalist, we write about what moves us to share or inform others. Articles are not always written to be enjoyed. They are sometimes used to break the most horrid news. These types of articles just can only simply be experienced. This is part of the art of journalism. It is part of life. Good journalism as well as good art has impact on our life. An article may reveal secretes of the government and ddress problems that we should be aware of in our community. Art impacts our life the same way. The painting La Maja Desnuda by Spanish painter Francisco Goya raised much controversy in the late 1700’s. This painting was one of the first nude paintings depicting pubic hair on a woman. Goya was stripped of his position of a Spanish court painter after this painting was revealed. It impacted p eople, just like journalism. This semester I have had my first experience as a journalist. I am taking a newspaper print class and writing for the school newspaper, The Bridge. When I first started the class I had no clue what I was getting into. Tight deadlines, different styles of articles, gathering information from sometimes non-willing sources, and the whole separate art of photojournalism were a shock to me. I perceive journalism as an art because of experience. Just like a painting it takes time, creative thought, and has different styles Many people argue that journalism is a dying art or not an art at all. I can agree with the fact that journalism is a dying art. Before television and radio, newspaper print was the only way of circulating the news other than by word of mouth. It is much different in this day and time. We now have television that have reporters report to us live news. A newspaper can not break the news live for its audience. Newspapers are finding it harder to be successful in this day and time. On the other side of this argument, people have more opportunity to write as a journalist because of internet. It no longer binds us to local writing. A person in Kentucky can write an article for the New York Times and simply send it by e-mail in the matter of seconds. Some people do not think journalism is an art because they have not experienced it for themselves. Just like me, before I experienced journalism for myself I thought it was just like any other type of writing. These people think journalism is old fashioned and would much rather have their news delivered to them by television, bypassing reading an actual article because they want to be informed the easiest way possible. They believe televised media is more accurate and easier to be comprehended. We need to save the art of print journalism. When was the last time you seen a teenager reading an actual print of the newspaper when they were not in it? I think schools should make students read news papers to be informed of current issues in the community. This would better improve their reading skills and promote newspaper print. Journalism as an art will only die out if we let it. Work Cited â€Å"Art† Dictionary. com Random House, Inc. February 13, 2013. â€Å"Journalism†. Dictionary. com. Random House, Inc. February 13, 2013 Sylvia. â€Å"Visual Arts- More Than Ordinary Significance† designtaxi. com. TAXI design network August 16, 2005. Web February 3, 2013. â€Å"10 Most Famous Paintings of all Time. †touropia. com. Touropia. October 30, 2010 Web. February 3, 2013 . How to cite Journalism Is Art, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Stakeholder Relationship Management for SES Northern Beaches

Question: Discuss about theStakeholder Relationship Management for SES Northern Beaches. Answer: Introduction The Northern Beaches council stays committed and plans and collaborates with emergency services to ensure that the community is protected from risk. The council ensures protection of community from storms, floods and bushfires. Local Emergency Services and State Emergency Services provide service to Northern Beaches to handle emergency situation. The council ensures that the local community stay protected from bushfires The Northern Beaches cover an area of 257 square km and has hundreds of road and residential streets, so the community members need to be protected from road emergencies. The community members are also protected from floods and storms by agencies (Haddow, Bullock Coppola, 2017). The members of the community are an important stakeholder in this case, because the State Emergency Services of Northern Beaches want more engagement of community members like youth and working population to deal with emergency situation of Northern Beaches (northern beaches, 2017) Discussion Analysis of the stakeholders and the organizations relationships with the SES Northern Beaches Analysis of stakeholders involve the following steps-Identification of stakeholders by relationship to organization, prioritization of stakeholders based on their attributes, prioritization of the stakeholders based on their relationship to the situation and prioritization of stakeholders by communication strategy. Harrison and St. John identified the first three steps of stakeholder analysis (Bourne, 2016). The stakeholders of State Emergency Services Northern Beaches can be identified by their relationship to the organization in the following ways Step 1: Functional Linkages- These stakeholders of SES northern beaches help them in getting volunteers Step 2: Latent - Dormant Stakeholder- These stakeholders of SES Northern beaches have power to influence but to the influence is not related to priority in legal framework or urgent , hence power of these stakeholders remains unused. These stakeholders of SES northern beaches have a supportive role. Step 3: Inactive Public These stakeholders of SES Northern Beaches have less knowledge and demonstrate less involvement. Step 4: Advocate Stakeholders - SES needs their involvement with supportive actions. Adversarial stakeholders - SES should use strategies to seek win-win solutions. The RSL lifecare, Bupa Aged Care, Thompson healthcare Pty Ltd, Livingcare Forest Village, Australia house Nursing Home, Terrey Hills Nursing Home, Alexander Age Care, Ocean View Nursing Home, Wesley Nursing Services, sports clubs, doctors, local media like the Radio Northern beaches, The Manly Daily and the Karmic Ecology local business are some of the stakeholders of this case. The intervening public is the stakeholder of SES Northern Beaches who provide information to the priority public and play role of opinion leaders. Intervening publics, like doctors provide information on to patients and teachers provide information to students. The strength of relationships with intervening publics determine the success of several campaigns(emergency services, 2017) Stakeholders who are active publics and who contribute to the success of an organisation, or appeal to other stakeholders with that influence are considered priority public in strategies of communication. In the following table, the stakeholders of SES Northern Beaches are identified based on relationship to SES, prioritization by attributes, prioritization by situation and prioritization by communication (emergency services, 2017). Relationship to SES Prioritization by Attributes Prioritization by Situation Prioritization by Communication Strategy Functional Linkage: Volunteers Latent - Dormant Stakeholders Inactive Public Advocate Stakeholders Action indoor sports (1)(northern beaches, 2017). Montessori, kindergarten preschools (180) Schools (206) Dance Schools (50) Jr. rugby clubs (2) Jr Soccer cubs (4) Piano Lessons (5) Aquatic centers (3) ?Action indoor sports (1) ?Montessori, kindergarten preschools (180)( (schools, 2017) ?Schools (206) ?Dance Schools (50)(hospitals, 2017) ?Jr. rugby clubs (2) ?Jr Soccer cubs (4) ?Piano Lessons (5) ?Aquatic centers ?Action indoor sports (1) ?Montessori, kindergarten preschools (180) ?Schools (206) ?Dance Schools (50) ?Jr. rugby clubs (2) ?Jr Soccer cubs (4)(northern beaches, 2017). ?Piano Lessons (5) ?Aquatic centers ?Action indoor sports (1) ?Montessori, kindergarten preschools (180) ?Schools (206) ?Dance Schools (50) ?Jr. rugby clubs (2) ?Jr Soccer cubs (4) ?Piano Lessons (5) ?Aquatic centers (3) (northern beaches, 2017). Analysis of the communication issue and how stakeholders may be affected by theissue raised .The problem or opportunity presented. The knowledge, behavior and attitude of stakeholders are contingent on a number of situational factors. Problem recognition, level of involvement and constraint recognition are three main variables for engaging stakeholders in communication. The emergencies in Northern Beaches occur due to both natural and man-made events like landslides, fires, prolonged disruptions, building collapses, storms. The combat agencies for the emergency are Police and SES. The council supports these combat agencies through the Local Emergency Management officer. During an emergency, the Council supports frontline agencies like SES and act as a Local Emergency Operations Center. The Northern Beaches Local Emergency Management Plan ensures that there is compliance with the State Emergency and Rescue Management Act and the responsibilities of the responders and community partners are defined in the plan. The responses for disaster management are informed at region and state levels and support is coordinated between the community members who are affected by the disaster and combat agencies (Kim, 2014). The Problem Natural disasters have affected the Northern Beaches in the past and because of climate change the northern beaches will be prone to emergency situation. Images of damage in homes of Collaroy beach in 2016 due to extreme storms received widespread attention in media. There is other emergency situation like fire and building collapse and the State Emergency Services will be able to tackle this situation with a greater involvement of community members. Organizational communications review The Northern Beaches have a population of 266,000. The community members have an active lifestyle and the Northern Beaches council is committed to provide highest quality services to community members. The values of the Northern Beach council are to provide community members with safe, inclusive and connected lives balanced with the extraordinary environment. The Council provides access to information to community members by the Government Information (Public Access) Act 2009 (GIPA). The Council ensures to adopt an open communication model with active and proactive release of information in the following ways (northern beaches, 2017). 1) Open Access (Mandatory Proactive Release) - This information which include media releases, annual reports, meetings and agendas, Council Policies are available on the website of the council, customers can avail it free of cost. 2) Proactive Release- This information which is of public interest is provided to community members either free of cost or at minimal cost (Ulmer, Sellnow Seeger, 2013). 3) If the formal application of the community members to access information is refused, then the community members can lodge GIPA internal review form with the Northern Beaches Council within a span of 20 working days. A fee is applicable in this case. 4) More Information is available on Information and Privacy Commission (IPC) website. The Northern Beaches Council provides communication information to public by 1) Annual Report- This report communicates information to community members about how the Council is performing against goals which are outlined in Strategic Community Plans 2) Operational Plan which provides information about operations of the Council, policies and codes, strategies and plans to achieve long term goals and the records of the formal council are some of the vital information that is provided by Northern Beaches Council to community members. The Newsletters, media releases and Mayors message are communication strategies adopted by Council (northern beaches, 2017). The Listening techniques and methods to identify the stakeholderneed expectations, knowledge, attitude towards organization and behavior. The knowledge of the community and attitude about floods and storms in the costs of the Northern beaches was improved by the State Emergency Services and by the Northern Beaches Council by the strategy of Northern Beaches Flood and Coastal storm education. Disaster resilience was built within the community by SES with the help of an awareness program. The education program which was conducted between 2012 and 2016 was participatory and tailored. The Northern Beaches council collaborated with State Emergency services, Office of Environment and Heritage, Australian Red Cross, Fire and Rescue NSW, NSW police and Ku-ring-gai councils. Workshops related to hazards and the Northern Beaches All hazards historic photograph exhibition was conducted to identify the needs, expectations and attitudes of the community members, to raise awareness about natural disasters and to build community resilience. According to Leon Festingers Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, stakeholders seek internal consistency of emotions, attitudes, beliefs and values. Cognitive dissonance is very uncomfortable for stakeholders. The attitude and behavioral process of stakeholders are important. The stakeholders judge information to be irrelevant, relevant and consistent (consonant), relevant and inconsistent (dissonant). A message is not trusted by the stakeholders if it is in contrast with the predisposition of the stakeholders. Stakeholders will avoid and ignore inconsistent information; stakeholders only listen to information which is in consistent to their beliefs. The three factors that counteract cognitive dissonance are perceived usefulness of information, perceived fairness, curiosity, interest and value of information. Post-decision dissonance is heightened by three conditions like importance of the issue, length of the time a stakeholder delays choosing in between two attractive options and the greater the difficulty in reversing the decision the more is the agonize of the stakeholders(northern beaches, 2017). The SES emergency services ensure to adopt the cognitive dissonance theory in the hazard workshops, educational programs and all other programs that plan to build resilience among members of the community. Critique of the PR actions of the organization The SES and Northern Beach council conduct workshops for communities like Emergency Panning for Childrens Services and Emergency Planning for aged care facilities. The SES collaborates with Ku-ring- gai councils community programs and the community resilience program of the Australian Red Cross community. The public relations of the Northern Beaches council and the state emergency services ensure that the community members learn about the local emergency planning agencies. The community members who participated in the workshop were able to discuss issues related to emergency planning with local representatives of the State Emergency Services. During the workshop, scenarios are presented by the State Emergency services which provide an opportunity for staffs of child care center and aged care facility to learn to cope with emergency situation. Activity books and senior booklets were provided to community members during these events to boost their confidence and enhance their resilienc e to cope up with emergency situation (Lee et al., 2013). Exhibitions related to Floods, fires and storms are curated by local artist Cherry Corr. The curator delivered nine-pop up photographic exhibitions to community members of Northern Beaches. During the exhibition, photos of floods, fire and storms that affected the Northern Beaches since the beginning of the 20th century was shown to the community members and it was demonstrated to them how SES prepares to handle such emergency services (northern beaches, 2017). PR programs like mystery photo competition and drawing activity for children are conducted by Northern Beaches Council and SES to understand the perception of this group of community members regarding emergency situation There was significant rainfall recently which caused flooding of the Narrabeen lagoon. A workshop was conducted by SES after this which helped community members to view the emergency services of SES on the site of flood. This exhibition increased the awareness of community members about extreme weather conditions and enhanced community resilience. The Northern Beaches Council and SES also focus on conducting local resilience conference which is attended by various organizations and eminent speakers across the globe. Identification of the long term principles and ethics underlying public relations decisionsmade in this case and their implications for ongoing stakeholder relationships. The State Emergency services and map where the vulnerable population of Northern Beaches is located who are at an increasing risk to be affected by natural disasters. The Northern Beaches Council and the State Emergency Services conduct an analysis of the emergency services provided to community members. This analysis is aimed to understand whether the needs of the community members are adequately met (northern beaches, 2017). It is ensured that the public relations decision related to delivering emergency services cover every member of the vulnerable group who are at a risk of natural and man-made disasters. The Northern Council and the State Emergency Services conduct several projects of public relation. The output of these projects defines people with vulnerabilities and specific hazards. The Northern Council and State Emergency Services develop maps and tables to accurately locate community members, who are at high risk of disasters (Millener et al., 2013). Comment on the state of the organizations reputation before and after the problemor opportunity presented itself. The Northern Council and State Emergency services ensure that community members are protected from hazards and emergency situation. However, the range of services is still not sufficient for vulnerable members of the community, the services provided by the SES and Northern Council do not reach the members who are at need at proper time. The services delivered by the Northern Beaches Council and SES should require more collaboration and coordination of services (northern beaches, 2017). This collaboration will ensure that the hazard and emergency services developed by SES is more comprehensive. The strategies will reduce duplication in services delivered by SES. Also, the efficiencies and outcomes of the emergency services require improvement to enhance the reputation of the State Emergency services and to facilitate community engagement (Smith, 2013). Conclusion It can be concluded that the Northern Beaches Council and SES conduct several programs to ensure more community involvement and to build community resilience which help community members to handle emergency situation. There are several PR activities like workshops and conferences which are conducted by SES to increase awareness about emergency situation among community members. However these services do not reach all members who are at risk of disaster and thus a more collaborative effort from SES and Northern Beach council is required in the process of service delivery. Reference Lists Bourne, L. 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Flash Flood Warning System for Sydneys Northern Beaches. Flooplain Management Association Conference, Tweed Heads NSW. northern beaches. (2017).northernbeaches.nsw.gov.au/. Retrieved 30 October 2017, from https://www.northernbeaches.nsw.gov.au/ Smith, R. D. (2013).Strategic planning for public relations. Routledge. Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., Seeger, M. W. (2013).Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Sage Publications.